Patanjali's Yoga Sutras Sutra 4, Chapter - Samadhi Pada

Updated: Mar 1



" vritti sarupyam itarata "


vritti- fluctuations of the mind, thoughts

sarupyam - existence or appearance of

itarata - somewhere else, in the thoughts of the material world


In this #Yogasutra #Patanjali is talking about what happens at other times when the mind is not in a state of complete steadiness.


As per #Samkhya philosophy the existence of the being is made possible by the coming together of two entities: the pure consciousness; the material world. If the mind ( matrix of thoughts) remains unarrested, concentrated the matrix of the thoughts being incessantly generated by the interaction of the senses with the material world completely hides the awareness of the #pureconsciousness behind it. The mind here remains in a befuddled state, completely identifying itself with the thoughts, forgetting its true nature which is pure consciousness.


State of a steady mind ,pure consciousness is clear of any mental modifications or the thoughts as depicted above

As the mind loses its steadiness, this clear canvas begins to get covered by the blemishes of the thoughts being generated on account of its contact with the material world.



Unsteady Mind - Thoughts start appearing hiding the awareness of the pure consciousness behind them

When the mind goes completely in the control of the senses it generates a denser matrix of thoughts. The being at this stage starts completely identifying only with these thoughts. The awareness of the pure consciousness is completely lost and the being starts taking the material world ( source of these thoughts) as the only reality available to it.


Complete identification with the thoughts, no awareness of the pure consciousness

The ego ( Asmita) binds around and cements this last stage of the awareness of itself for the being. This #YogaSutra speaks about the state of mind when it is not steady: loss of awareness of the pure consciousness.


The sutra explains that when the mind is unsteady, mental modifications ( vrittis) appear ( sarupyam) from somewhere else ( itarata) hiding the awareness of the pure consciousness behind them.


The biggest challenge of #yoga for a being is to continue existing in the material world, and also remaining aware of the pure consciousness or the true reality. The existence of the mind is the cause of the intermixing of these two separate entities. Pure consciousness or the spirit only witnesses the drama being unfolded in front of it by the material world. In case one is well aware of the separate existence of these two, one can keep the witness like attitude to the happening around in the material world and not get involved with it at all. When the being is not aware of this distinction between the two it gets involved with the drama being generated by the elements emerged form Prakriti ( material world) and hence it starts suffering.


The aim of #Samkhyaphilosophy ( and also fo yoga philosophy ) is to realise this distinction and maintain a witness like attitude towards the happening around in the material world, purify the mind of any emerging thoughts and realise its true existence - pure consciousness.


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